The first golem we see was made by Judah Loew Ben Bezalel in the 16th century. This golem is made out of purple clay / stone and stood 8 feet tall. He was created to protect the Jewish people in Prague. The golem was deactivated, but was brought back by Prof. Abraham Adamson in modern day. The golem joined a S.H.I.E.L.D. team called the Howling Commandos Monster Force. This version had super strength so long as it touched the ground.
During World War II, Jacob Goldestien was a resident of the Warshaw Ghetto. He turned himself into a golem and fought Nazis. He helped the Invaders when his brother was kidnapped by the villain Doctor Death. He had super strength and stone-hard skin.
There is a criminal overlord named Golem that appears in the Hood series. A golem fought the Thing from the Fantastic Four and lost. Marvel has various minor characters simply called Golem, but weren't actual Golems.
Uri Fink's Golem
Popular Israeli comic creator Uri Fink created a superhero Golem. Despite creating the character in 2003, he gave the character a history stretching to the 1940s.
The Golem was a superhero since the 1940s and met people like Ariel Sharon and Moshe Dayan. Each decade, the golem's origin changed (likely a homage to the tendency to retell superhero origins). He became a superhero via invention made by a scientist named Professor Finstein. Then they said he got powers from the Seal of King Solomon. However, the most recent telling of his origin claims he was exposed to radiation (akin to the Hulk). The Golem has gone back to time several times most notably to the time of Samson and the wild west.
Mendy and the Golem
Mendy Klein found a Golem in her dad's synagogue (a Jewish place of prayer). The Mendy and her brother had slapstick comedy adventures with the Golem that ending with them getting out okay and learning a lesson from Jewish religious texts. The series had several revamps that combined the series with elements of other genres.
Tommy Czuchra was a 13-year old kid that died but was reborn and the ability to turn into a stone golem with super strength and durability called Monolith. Tommy was killed when his golem body was destroyed and insurance salesman David Ridgeway became a golem and the new Monolith.
DC Comic had several Golem characters (one of whom was a member of a superhero team Hayoth). However, I could find info on one of them. This Golem is a mud elemental made out of mud from Louisiana swamps. He lived in Louisiana, but was forced to flee when people thought he killed someone he didn't. He joined the superhero team Primal Force / Leymen. This golem preferred the name Paul. Paul had super strength and durability, but could also use clay and mud to heal himself.
- The DC Comic Encylopedia entry "Golem" (see page 128)